Washington, March 26 — After confronting each other for nearly 31 years as hostile neighbors, Egypt and Israel signed a formal treaty at the White house today to establish peace and “normal and friendly relations. On this chilly early spring day, about 1,500 invited guests and israel palestine conflict essay topics more watching television saw President Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel put their signatures on the Arabic, Hebrew and English versions of the first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab country. President Carter who was credited by both leaders for having made the agreement possible, signed, as a witness, for the United States. In a somber speech he said, “Peace has come.
We have won, at last, the first step of peace — a first step on a long and difficult road,” he added. Later, at a state dinner, Mr. Carter be given the Nobel Peace Prize, and Mr. At the signing ceremony, all three leaders offered prayers that the treaty would bring true peace to the Middle East and end the enmity that has erupted into war four times since Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948. By coincidence, they all referred to the words of the Prophet Isaiah.
Let us work together until the day comes when they beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning books,” Mr. Sadat said in his paraphrase of the biblical text. Begin, who gave the longest and most emotional of the addresses, exclaimed: “No more war, no more bloodshed, no more bereavement, peace unto you, shalom, saalam, forever. Shalom” and “salaam” are the Hebrew and Arabic words for “peace. The Israeli leader, noted for oratorical skill, provided a dash of humor when in the course of his speech he seconded Mr.
Carter was “the unknown soldier of the peacemaking effort,” Mr. Begin said, pausing, “I agree, but as usual with an amendment” -that Mr. Carter was not completely unknown and that his peace effort would “be remembered and recorded by generations to come. Begin was known through the negotiations as a stickler for details, much to the American side’s annoyance, Mr. Carter seemed to explode with laughter at Mr.
Begin’s reference to “an amendment. Begin was deeply somber as he put on the Jewish skull cap and quoted in Hebrew from Psalm 126. The signing was followed by an outdoor dinner on the South Lawn at the White House for 1,300 guests. The treaty was the result of months of grueling, often frustrating negotiations that finally were concluded early this morning when a final compromise was reached on the last remaining issue – a timetable for Israel to give up Sinai oil-fields. Under the treaty, Israel will withdraw its military forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula in stages over three years. Two-thirds of the area will be returned within nine months, after formal ratification documents are exchanged. The ratification process is expected to begin in about two weeks.
In return for Israel’s withdrawal, Egypt has agreed to end the state of war and to establish peace. After the initial nine-month withdrawal is completed, Egypt and Israel will establish “normal and friendly relations” in many fields, including diplomatic, cultural and economic relations. The outline for the peace treaty was achieved in September when Mr. Begin met at Camp David, Md. In addition to the treaty, they also agreed on the framework for an accord to provide self-rule to the more than one million Palestinians living in the Israeli-occupied areas of the West Bank of the Jordan and the Gaza Strip.
The Camp David accords were opposed by most countries in the Arab world for two reasons. The Arabs regarded the decision by Mr. Sadat to sign a peace treaty with Israel as a betrayal of the Arab cause, since it suggested that Egypt would no longer be willing to go to war against Israel to help Syria, Jordan, and the Palestinians regain territory. Arabs also viewed the self-rule agreement for Palestinians as insufficient because it did not guarantee the creation of a Palestinian state. As a result of that opposition, today’s signing was greeted by criticism throughout the Arab world. Echoes of that were heard in Washington, where about a thousand Arabs demonstrated in Lafayette Park, several hundred yards from the signing ceremony.
Their anti-Sadat chants could be heard at the White House. We must not minimize the obstacles that still lie ahead,” Mr. Differences still separate the signatories to this treaty from each other and also from some of their neighbors who fear what they have just done. To overcome these differences, to dispel those fears, we must rededicate ourselves to the goal of a broader peace with justice for all who have lived in a state of conflict in the Middle East. We have no illusions – we have hopes, dreams, and prayers, yes – but no illusions. Carter read out a long passage that turned on a metaphor of peace being waged like war.
It was later disclosed by the White House that the section was quoted from an essay written by the Rev. Knight in the House of Missions Magazine of the Southern Baptist Convention. At the end of the ceremony Mr. Begin grasped each other in a three-way handclasp. Despite the show of cordiality, there were signs that differences between Egypt and Israel were far from over. Sadat never referred to Mr. Begin, whom he reportedly does not like personally.
Carter as “the man who performed the miracle. Without any exaggeration, what he did consitutes one of the greatest achievements of our time,” President Sadat said. In the printed text of his speech, Mr. Sadat made a strong appeal to Mr. Carter to lend “support and backing” to the Palestinians and reassure them that they would be able “to take the first step on the road to self-determination and statehood. The following was in the text of Mr. No one is more entitled to your support and backing than the Palestinian people.
A grave injustice was inflicted upon them in the past. They need a reassurance that they will be able to take the first step on the road to self-determination and statehood. A dialogue between the United States and the representatives of the Palestinian people will be a very helpful development. On the other hand, we must be certain that the provisions of the Camp David framework on the establishments of a self-governing authority with full autonomy are carried out. There must be a genuine transfer of authority to the Palestinians in their land. Without that, the problem will remain unsolved. The remarks about the Palestinians would have been provocative to Mr.