Quality of Life: India vs. The rate of economic growth in India is steadily rising, and there is much speculation about whether and when India may catch up with and surpass China’s change in education system in india essay rate.
Despite the evident excitement that this subject seems to cause in India and abroad, it is surely rather silly to be obsessed about India’s overtaking China in the rate of growth of GNP, while not comparing India with China in other respects, like education, basic health, or life expectancy. Economic growth can, of course, be enormously helpful in advancing living standards and in battling poverty. But there is little cause for taking the growth of GNP to be an end in itself, rather than seeing it as an important means for achieving things we value. India may catch up with and surpass China’s over 10 percent growth rate. Despite the evident excitement that this subject seems to cause in India and abroad, it is surely rather silly to be obsessed about India’s overtaking China in the rate of growth of GNP, while not comparing India with China in other respects, like education, basic health, or life expectancy. It could, however, be asked why this distinction should make much difference, since economic growth does enhance our ability to improve living standards. The central point to appreciate here is that while economic growth is important for enhancing living conditions, its reach and impact depend greatly on what we do with the increased income.
The relation between economic growth and the advancement of living standards depends on many factors, including economic and social inequality and, no less importantly, on what the government does with the public revenue that is generated by economic growth. Some statistics about China and India, drawn mainly from the World Bank and the United Nations, are relevant here. Life expectancy at birth in China is 73. 230 per 100,000 live births in India and thirty-eight in China.
Total Marks: 250 marks; but because she is a woman, there has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last two decades. According to Vedic hymns, this is observed in all spares of activity. Globalization would finish small, circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. But in actual practice, in comparable units of purchasing power.
The mean years of schooling in India were estimated to be 4. 4 years, compared with 7. China’s adult literacy rate is 94 percent, compared with India’s 74 percent according to the preliminary tables of the 2011 census. 80 percent, whereas in China it is 99 percent. Comparing India with China according to such standards can be more useful for policy discussions in India than confining the comparison to GNP growth rates only. China’s rate of GNP growth is still clearly higher than India’s.
Higher GNP has certainly helped China to reduce various indicators of poverty and deprivation, and to expand different features of the quality of life. GNP per capita is, however, not invariably a good predictor of valuable features of our lives, for those features depend also on other things that we do—or fail to do. 590 in Bangladesh, in comparable units of purchasing power. This difference has expanded rapidly because of India’s faster rate of recent economic growth, and that, of course, is a point in India’s favor.
But we must ask how well India’s income advantage is reflected in other things that also matter. I fear the answer is: not well at all. Life expectancy in Bangladesh is 66. 9 years compared with India’s 64. Mean years of schooling amount to 4. 8 years in Bangladesh compared with India’s 4. While India is ahead of Bangladesh in the male literacy rate for the age group between fifteen and twenty-four, the female rate in Bangladesh is higher than in India.
Interestingly, the female literacy rate among young Bangladeshis is actually higher than the male rate, whereas young women still have substantially lower rates than young males in India. There is much evidence to suggest that Bangladesh’s current progress has a great deal to do with the role that liberated Bangladeshi women are beginning to play in the country. The mortality rate of children under five is sixty-six per thousand in India compared with fifty-two in Bangladesh. In infant mortality, Bangladesh has a similar advantage: it is fifty per thousand in India and forty-one in Bangladesh. While 94 percent of Bangladeshi children are immunized with DPT vaccine, only 66 percent of Indian children are.
In each of these respects, Bangladesh does better than India, despite having only half of India’s per capita income. Of course, Bangladesh’s living conditions will benefit greatly from higher economic growth, particularly if the country uses it as a means of doing good things, rather than treating economic growth and high per capita income as ends in themselves. But higher income, including larger public resources, will obviously enhance Bangladesh’s ability to achieve better lives for its people. One of the positive things about economic growth is that it generates public resources that the government can devote to its priorities. In fact, public resources very often grow faster than the GNP.
This is a substantially bigger jump than the price-corrected GNP. And yet India is still well behind China in many of these fields. For example, government expenditure on health care in China is nearly five times that in India. One result of the relatively low allocation of funds to public health care in India is that large numbers of poor people across the country rely on private doctors, many of whom have little medical training. In a study conducted by the Pratichi Trust—a public interest trust I set up in 1999—we found cases in which the ignorance of poor patients about their condition was exploited so as to make them pay for treatment they didn’t get.